Water clarification helps remove suspended solids and particulate matter which improve settling. Water clarification systems are either rectangular, where water flows from end to end, or circular, where flow occurs from the centre outward. Water clarification is used in the treatment of industrial effluent, municipal wastewater and municipal drinking water as pre-treatment to further purification processes.
See more information on clarification here!
Filtration may be used in the treatment of industrial effluent, process water, municipal wastewater and drinking water. It is also used as a pre-treatment step to membrane processes and desalination of seawater.
View more information on filtration here!
Oxidation & disinfection
Disinfection of water by physico-chemical means entails the destruction of disease-causing organisms in order to prevent their spread. Additionally, processes such as ozonation and ultraviolet irradiation also aid in the destruction of biological contaminants that remain in the water after treatment. These processes are used in potable water treatment, industrial effluent reclamation, municipal wastewater treatment, as well as ultra-pure water applications.
View more information on these technologies here!
In membrane separation, semi-permeable membranes allow certain molecules or ions to pass through by diffusion and, occasionally, by specialised "facilitated diffusion".
View more information on this technology here!
Ion exchange is a process in which ions are exchanged between a solution and an ion exchange resin, either cationic or anionic. It is a reversible process and the resin can be regenerated for re-use. The process is widely used for water softening in industrial and residential applications.
View more information on ion exchange here!
Aerobic and anaerobic biological processes
Anaerobic and aerobic digestion are naturally occurring processes that are harnessed to treat waste, produce biogas, provide heat and produce soil improving material (compost). These digesters are commonly used for sewage, municipal wastewater or industrial wastewater treatment.
View more information on aerobic and anaerobic digestion here!
Sludge treatment & handling
Increasingly sludge is being viewed and treated as a source of valuable by-products and agriculturally beneficial ingredients, such as phosphorus extracted from struvite. For many sites, however, the real pay-off comes in the capacity to recover energy. Managing the increasing sludge volumes generated by municipal and industrial water and wastewater treatment processes is a major environmental challenge worldwide.
Learn more here!
Evaporation & crystallisation
Thermal processes, such as evaporation and crystallisation, are used in a variety of industries, but their application in water treatment normally involves either the recovery of water from a brine or waste stream or the production of potable or process water from seawater. Usually evaporation and crystallisation are used in combination with other processes, such as reverse osmosis, in order to establish a Zero Liquid Effluent Discharge plant.
See more information here!
An effective process for treatment and reuse of industrial and municipal wastewater, Membrane Bioreactors, or MBR, combines a membrane separation process such as microfiltration or ultrafiltration with a suspended growth bioreactor.
Click here for more information on MBR technology!